A theory in simple words is a definition or explanation of something. If we talk about nursing theories, it include the policies, goals and the nursing concepts that nurses have to bring into practice. Nursing theories are considered as a source of knowledge and hold answers to many questions. These theories are arranged in such a way to make it easy for the nurses to understand the whole phenomenon and situation before practicing their job. Nursing theorists have researched and explained the art of nursing in their own simplified words, most of the theories are included in the syllabus of nursing certification. These theories are divided into sub-parts and modules, to deliver it easily and to make the most out of it.
Grand theories are the theories that describe whole phenomenon of the discipline on hypothetical level. It defines the broad prospect and does not narrow down to any specific subject.
Middle-range theories hold a precise amount of data as compared to grand theories and it ties a knot between grand theories and micro ranged theories. These theories are able to deliver the nursing phenomenon but still cannot wrap it up.
Micro range theories have more limited scope and are less abstract than grand and middle range theories. These theories are concrete and most relevant to the subject. The knowledge delivered in micro range theories are specific and covers the basic topics relevant to the subject.
There are some common concepts in nursing theories that are:
- The person (patient)
- The environment
- Nursing (goals, roles, functions)
Most commonly used Nursing theories are:
- Psychosocial theories
- Health and wellness models
- Systems theory
- Stress and adaptation
- Basic human needs theory
- Development theories
Most of the models in nursing theories are design by the theorists to illustrate the theory. Nursing models are the physical representation of the idea and tells how to observe the phenomenon. Models are use to clarify the ambiguities and complexities that exist in the theories. Models are categorize as:
Verbal models are the models that are the statements that used to portray the meaning of the theory.
A graphical representation of the idea in form of picture, diagram or a graph to easily convey the knowledge.
A theory is a sequential combination of nursing concepts and practice.
Concepts are the core part of the theory. Concepts are the words that represent events objects or properties. There are three basic nursing concepts:
- Empirical concept
- Inferential concept
- Abstract concept
It discovered centuries ago that theory is the basic part of nurse training and it is as important to nursing students as practice.